Thursday, August 31, 2017

Lebanese Propolis Exhibited Significant Cytotoxicity and Anti-Proliferative Activity

Chemical characterization and cytotoxic activity evaluation of Lebanese propolis

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Aug 26;95:298-307

Chemical composition, anti-proliferative and proapoptotic activity as well as the effect of various fractions of Lebanese propolis on the cell cycle distribution were evaluated on Jurkat leukemic T-cells, glioblastoma U251 cells, and breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells using cytotoxic assays, flow cytometry as well as western blot analysis.

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed that ferulic acid, chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin are major constituents of the ethanolic crude extract of the Lebanese propolis, while the hexane fraction mostly contains chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin but at similar levels. Furthermore chemical analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify major compounds in the hexane fraction. Reduction of cell viability was observed in Jurkat cells exposed to the ethanolic crude extract and the hexane fraction, while viability of U251 and MDA-MB-231 cells was only affected upon exposure to the hexane fraction; the other fractions (aqueous phase, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate) were without effect.

Maximum toxic effect was obtained when Jurkat cells were cultivated with 90μg/ml of both the crude extract and hexane faction. Toxicity started early after 24h of incubation and remained till 72h. Interestingly, the decrease in cell viability was accompanied by a significant increase in p53 protein expression levels and PARP cleavage. Cell cycle distribution showed an increase in the SubG0 fraction in Jurkat, U251 and MDA-MB-231 cells after 24h incubation with the hexane fraction. This increase in SubG0 was further investigated in Jurkat cells by annexinV/PI and showed an increase in the percentage of cells in early and late apoptosis as well as necrosis.

In conclusion, Lebanese propolis exhibited significant cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity promising enough that warrant further investigations on the molecular targets and mechanisms of action of Lebanese propolis.

Wednesday, August 30, 2017

Romanian Apitherapy Congress October 6-8, 2017

Romanian Api-Congress, Expo, Workshops & Tours

October 6-8, 2017: Apitherapy Congress and Api-Expo 2017

October 9-10: Post-Congress intensive Workshops


University Lucian Blaga, Faculty of Medicine, Aula Magna, Strada Lucian Blaga 2A, Sibiu, Romania

Monday, August 28, 2017

Propolis in the Prevention of Oral Mucositis in Breast Cancer Patients

Propolis in the prevention of oral mucositis in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2017 Aug 25

Chemo-induced oral mucositis (OM) is associated with significant symptoms, treatment delays and increased costs. This pilot randomised controlled trial aimed at evaluating the safety, tolerability and compliance with propolis in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, testing preliminary clinical efficacy of propolis in the prevention of OM, and prospectively evaluating the incidence of OM. Sixty patients were randomised to receive either a dry extract of propolis with 8%-12% of galangin plus mouth rinsing with sodium bicarbonate (experimental arm), or mouth rinsing with sodium bicarbonate (control arm). OM was evaluated with the NCI-CTCAE v4.0 after 5, 10, 15 and 21 days of treatment. Compliance with, tolerability of propolis and adverse events were recorded. The incidence of OM was also prospectively evaluated for 6 months. Two patients (6.7%) manifested a suspected skin reaction to propolis. No patient in the experimental arm developed OM > G1, while in the control arm OM > G1 was 16.7% (p = .02). The incidence of OM ≥ G1 at the end of cycles 2-8 was higher at the second (25%) and fifth cycles (45.8%). Propolis plus bicarbonate was safe, well tolerated and promisingly effective in the prevention of OM in patients with breast cancer.

Sunday, August 27, 2017

Study of Indian Indian Melifera Propolis

HPLC, NMR based chemical profiling and biological characterisation of Indian propolis

Fitoterapia. 2017 Aug 23. pii: S0367-326X(17)31118-8

The present study aimed to investigate chemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Indian Melifera propolis (IMP) samples collected from 13 different states. Chemical characterisation of ethanolic extracts of IMP (EEMP) samples was carried out by using HPLC and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity of EEMP samples was measured by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. Moreover, antimicrobial activity of each EEMP sample tested against bacteria and yeast using a 96 well plate microdilution method. All EEMP samples had remarkable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

The antioxidant potential of EEMP samples found to have moderate positive correlation with their total phenolics and flavonoids content. Majority of EEMP samples had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤1mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. Chemometric analysis of 1HNMR data indicated that brown, green, green-brown, red and red-brown coloured IMP samples were chemically distinct from each other, and showed two separate clusters for northern and southern states propolis samples. HPLC analysis confirmed phenethyl caffeate was most common and abundant compound in IMP samples among studied compounds.

In conclusion, this study may be helpful for defining quality of IMP as a raw material, and also in finished food and health care products.

Saturday, August 26, 2017

Honey May Help Treat Diarrhea

Role of Honey in Topical and Systemic Bacterial Infections

J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Aug 24


The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has made it more difficult and expensive to treat infections. Honey is getting worldwide attention as a topical therapeutic agent for wound infections and potential future candidate for systemic infections.


The purpose of this review was to summarise different antibacterial bio-active compounds in honey, their synergistic interaction and their clinical implications in topical and systemic infections. In addition, contemporary testing methods for evaluating peroxide and non-peroxide antibacterial activity of honey were also critically appraised.


MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Pub Med, reference lists and databases were used to review the literature.


Honey contains several unique antibacterial components. These components are believed to act on diverse bacterial targets, are broad spectrum, operate synergistically, prevent biofilm formation, and decrease production of virulence factors. Moreover, honey has the ability to block bacterial communication (quorum sensing), and therefore, it is unlikely that bacteria develop resistance against honey. Bacterial resistance against honey has not been documented so far. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey only targets pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the growth of normal gastrointestinal flora when taken orally. It also contains prebiotics, probiotics, and zinc and enhances the growth of beneficial gut flora. The presence of such plethora of antibacterial properties in one product makes it a promising candidate not only in wound infections but also in systemic and particularly for gastrointestinal infections. Agar diffusion assay, being used for evaluating antibacterial activity of honey, is not the most appropriate and sensitive assay as it only detects non-peroxide activity when present at a higher level. Therefore, there is a need to develop more sensitive techniques that may be capable of detecting and evaluating different important components in honey as well as their synergistic interaction.


Keeping in view the current guidelines for treatment of diarrhea, honey is considered one of the potential candidates for treatment of diarrhea because it contains a natural combination of probiotics, prebiotics, and zinc. Therefore, it would be worthwhile if such a combination is tested in RCTs for treatment of diarrhea.

Friday, August 25, 2017

Charles Mraz Apitherapy Course And Conference (CMACC) November 10-12, 2017, Redondo Beach, CA

Theory In Practice, A Hands-On Approach

November 10-12 2017

The Redondo Beach Hotel

400 N. Harbor Drive

Redondo Beach, CA 90277


Level One: For those new to Apitherapy or those wanting a basic review to include core knowledge of Apitherapy basics (honey, propolis, pollen, royal jelly and bee venom).

Level Two: For those who are more experienced and already practicing Apitherapy wanting more       advanced knowledge in the uses and applications of Apitherapy.

Thursday, August 24, 2017

Review of the Many Medicinal Uses of Honey

Honey: Single food stuff comprises many drugs

Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Available online 16 August 2017

Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions.

Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself. Prior to the appearance of present day drugs, honey was conventionally used for treating many diseases.

At this instant, the modern research has proven the medicinal importance of honey. It has broad spectrum antibiotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities. Honey prevents and kills microbes through different mechanism such as elevated pH and enzyme activities. Till now, no synthetic compound that works as anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal drugs has been reported in honey yet it works against bacteria, viruses and fungi while no anti-protozoal activity has been reported.

Potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activities of honey have been reported.

Honey is not only significant as anti-inflammatory drug that relieve inflammation but also protect liver by degenerative effects of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. This article reviews physico-chemical properties, traditional use of honey as medicine and mechanism of action of honey in the light of modern scientific medicinal knowledge.

Wednesday, August 23, 2017

Oral Intake of Honey During Radiotherapy Reduces Severity of Oral Mucositis

The Effect of Honey on Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

Indian J Palliat Care. 2017 Jul-Sep;23(3):317-320


The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of honey on clinically scoring grades of oral mucositis.


This interventional study was carried out in Radiation Oncology Department of Mayo Hospital, Lahore. In this study, 82 patients of both genders, of head and neck cancer, planned for radiotherapy, were divided into two groups by random sampling numbers. Patients in both groups were treated with a total dose of 60-78 Grays in 4-6 weeks. In treatment group, patients were instructed to take 20 mL of honey. In control group, they were advised to rinse with 0.9% of saline. Patients were evaluated every week to assess the grades of oral mucositis up to 6 weeks. The assessment tool was Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grading System. The statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test.


In honey-treated group, the proportion of mucositis (Grades 3 and 4) was lower and statistically significant as compared to control group at the end of 6 weeks of radiation.


This study showed that oral intake of honey during radiotherapy is valuable in the reduction of severity of oral mucositis.

Tuesday, August 22, 2017

WATCH: Health Benefits of Raw Honey - Allergies

Annessa’s Just One Thing: Raw Honey Benefits


This week’s health tip is for those of us with seasonal allergies. Registered Dietitian Annessa Chumbley says they can definitely challenge your energy level, so if you’re looking for a natural, simple remedy to help, try this. Take 1 teaspoon of raw local honey every day. Raw local honey is going to look different – because it has local pollen, propolis, and beeswax in it. Those are all good things that may benefit your body, including your allergies. Raw local honey is also a natural antibiotic, anti-fungual, packed with plant nutrients and infection-fighting antibiotics.

Monday, August 21, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Treat Bovine Mastitis

Bee venom decreases LPS-induced inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 Aug 17

The world dairy industry has long been challenged by bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disease, which causes economic loss due to decreased milk production and quality. Attempts have been made to prevent or treat this disease with multiple approaches, primarily through increased abuse of antibiotics, but effective natural solutions remain elusive. Bee venom (BV) contains a variety of peptides (e.g., melittin) and that shows multiple bioactivities including prevention of inflammation. Thus, in the current study, it was hypothesized that BV can reduce inflammation in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T).

To examine the hypothesis, cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) to induce an inflammatory response and investigated anti-inflammatory effects of BV (2.5 and 5 μg/ml). The cellular mechanisms of BV against LPS-induced inflammation were also investigated. Results showed that BV can attenuate expression of an inflammatory protein, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Activation of NF-κB, an inflammatory transcription factor was significantly downregulated by BV in cells treated with LPS through de-phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Also, pretreatment of cells with BV attenuated LPS-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide anion).

These results support our hypothesis that BV can decrease LPS-induced inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells through inhibition of oxidative stress, NF-κB, ERK1/2 and COX-2 signaling.

Sunday, August 20, 2017

Australia and New Zealand Battle Over Manuka Honey

Kiwis launch big-money battle against Aussies over manuka honey

We’ve fought over the lamington and the pavlova, and now there’s a new food war brewing between Australia and New Zealand.

The Australian reported on what it called an “escalating and increasingly sour trans-Tasman trade dispute” over the naming rights on honey. New Zealand honey producers have applied to exclusively trademark the name ‘manuka’ in big markets including the US, the UK and China.

They argue that maunka is a Maori word and Australian producers are being opportunistic in trying to cash in on the success that Kiwi producers have had in marketing it. And it’s no little squabble – in Asia, manuka honey is in high demand because of its health properties and can sell for as much as $150 ($120) a kilo, according to The Australian‘s report...

Saturday, August 19, 2017

Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:1259510


There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food.


In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding.


An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

Friday, August 18, 2017

Royal Jelly Boosts Wound Healing

The Royal Jelly Of Bees Is Great At Healing Wounds, And Now We Know Why

By Robin Andrews

When it comes to healing wounds, the things that always sound the most appropriate – and effective – always have fairly technical-sounding names. The US National Institutes for Health (NIH) cite a good few, including “collagen, silicon, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid” wound dressing polymers. They all sound rather sciencey, and are therefore probably quite good.

The technicality of the name of a wound-healing material, however, is not a good indicator of said effectiveness. This is fortunate, as the rather silly-sounding “royal jelly” is also pretty remarkable at healing wounds too, according to a new study in Scientific Reports...

Thursday, August 17, 2017

Korean Acacia Honey Shows Anti-H. pylori Activity

Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity

Pharmacogn Mag. 2017 Jul;13(Suppl 2):S170-S173


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide.


This study is aimed at evaluating the anti-H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents.


The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti-H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay.


Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori.


Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori-induced infections.


The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n-butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfraction. All the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pyloriAbscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Honey, Bee Venom Nanofibers Exhibit Potent Antibacterial Activity

Apitherapeutics and phage-loaded nanofibers as wound dressings with enhanced wound healing and antibacterial activity

Nanomedicine (Lond). 2017 Aug 14


Develop green wound dressings which exhibit enhanced wound-healing ability and potent antibacterial effects.


Honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan nanofibers were electrospun and loaded with bee venom, propolis and/or bacteriophage against the multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and examined for their antibacterial, wound-healing ability and cytotoxicity.


Among different formulations of nanofibers, honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan-bee venom/bacteriophage exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains (Gram-positive and -negative strains) and achieved nearly complete killing of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. In vivo testing revealed enhanced wound-healing results and cytotoxicity testing proved improved biocompatibility.


The developed biocompatible nanofibers represent competitive wound-healing dressings with potent antibacterial and wound-healing activity.

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Move Over, Mānuka? Firm Claims Stingless Bee Honey 'Better for Health and Environment'

By Cheryl Marie Tay, 15-Aug-2017

Honey from a stingless bee species native to the Philippines is being touted as superior to mānuka honey, with a Singapore firm marketing products made from the former...

Monday, August 14, 2017

Honey as Immune Booster for Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

From the hive: Honey, a novel weapon against cancer
Eur J Med Chem. 2017 Aug 3. pii: S0223-5234(17)30586-X

Nowadays there is a folk medicine branch called apitherapy that aims to treat diseases with bee products, including honey. Honey has long been known for its medicinal and health promoting properties. It encloses numerous types of phytochemicals with high phenolic and flavonoid content, which contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Varieties and variants of polyphenols in honey showed antiproliferative property against several types of cancer. This review focuses on the latest discoveries about the key role of honey in different stages of carcinogenesis, initiation, proliferation and progression, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on its adjuvant effect in cancer therapy.

Although a possible application of honey and its active compounds as drugs against cancer is still far away from clinical practice, scientific results highlight that they could be used as immune booster for patients undergoing chemotherapy. They showed protective effects against the common exasperating and disabling side effects, mostly mucositis.

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Royal Jelly Suppresses Skin Pigmentation

The functional property of royal jelly 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid as a melanogenesis inhibitor

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Aug 9;17(1):392


It has been reported that royal jelly would reduce melanin synthesis and inhibit the expression of melanogensis related proteins and genes. In this study, we evaluate the anti-melanogenic and depigmenting activity of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly of Apis mellifera.


In this study, we assesses the 10-HDA whitening activity in comparison with the changes in the intracellular tyrosinase activity, melanin content and melanin production related protein levles in B16F1 melanoma cells after treating with 10-HDA. Furthermore, the skin whitening effect was evaluated by applying a cream product containing with 0.5%, 1% and 2% of 10-HDA onto the skin of mice (C57BL/6 J) for 3 week to observe the effect of DL*-values.


The results showed that 10-HDA inhibited the MITF protein expression (IC50 0.86 mM) in B16F1 melanoma cells. Western blot analysis revealed that 10-HDA inhibited the activity of tyrosinase and the expression of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16F1 melanoma cells. In addition, the 10-HDA was applied on the skin of mice show significantly increased the average skin-whitening index (L value).


The validation data indicated the potential of 10-HDA for use in suppressing skin pigmentation. The 10-HDA is proposed as a candidate to inhibit melanogenesis, thus it could be developed as cosmetics skin care products.

Saturday, August 12, 2017

Engineered Honey Effective Against Wound Pathogen Biofilms

Use of an engineered honey to eradicate preformed biofilms of important wound pathogens: an in vitro study

J Wound Care. 2017 Aug 2;26(8):442-450


We previously reported on the ability of SurgihoneyRO (SHRO), an engineered honey, to prevent biofilm formation in vitro, but data were lacking regarding the activity against preformed biofilms. This study aims to assess whether SHRO has any antibacterial activity against mature, preformed biofilms and whether there is any evidence to support the observed clinical effectiveness when SHRO has been used anecdotally on acute and chronic wounds where biofilm is most likely present.


We tested the in vitro antibacterial activity of SHRO against the mature biofilms of 16 clinically relevant wound pathogens, in terms of impacts on biofilm seeding and biofilm biomass. The honey was serially double diluted from 1:3 down to 1:6144, and the lowest dilution achieving a statistically significant reduction in biomass of ≥50%, compared with untreated controls, was recorded.


All 16 bacterial isolates were susceptible to SHRO, with reduced biofilm seeding observed for all, and percentage reductions ranging from 58% (ACI_C59) to 94.3% (MDR_B) for the strongest concentration of honey (1:3). Furthermore at this concentration, biofilm seeding of the test biofilm was reduced by 80-94.3% (when compared with the positive control) for 12/16 isolates. We additionally demonstrated that SHRO has antibiofilm impacts, with the 24 hour exposure resulting in disruption of the biofilm, reduced seeding and reduced biomass.


SHRO is effective at reducing seeding of preformed biofilms of clinically important wound pathogens in vitro, and also has antibiofilm activity. This supports the anecdotal clinical data for antibiofilm efficacy, and supports the use of SHRO as a promising topical wound care agent.

Friday, August 11, 2017

Bracatinga Honeydew Honey a Natural Source of Bioaccessible Polyphenols

Effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, minerals, and antioxidant capacity of Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys

Food Res Int. 2017 Sep;99(Pt 1):670-678

Honey is a product traditionally consumed due to its possible health benefits promoted by natural antioxidants. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on these compounds in honeys.

To improve the knowledge of this subject, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of simulated digestion on the stability of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays), phenolic compounds (LC-ESI-MS/MS), and minerals (CE-DAD) in Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys.

The results show that the digestive system, mainly after duodenal digestion, significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity assessed by FRAP (410.3±18.3 to 564.7±8.4μmolFe+2100g-1), DPPH (30.1±0.8 to 33.9±1.4mgAAE100g-1), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays (58.3±2.6 to 142.0±1.6mgGAE100g-1) of this honey. However, phenolic compounds and minerals showed high stability and in some cases, significantly increased after the simulated digestion, presenting a bioaccessible fraction that ranged from 78.2±6.4 to 174.38±6.82% and 94.0±4.3 to 220.5±3.4%, respectively.

Therefore, these honey constituents may be considered highly bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Additionally, the correlation between the investigated parameters suggests that other honey constituents could also possibly affect antioxidant capacity of this honey.

In conclusion, the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) honeydew honey can be highlighted as an important natural source of bioaccessible polyphenols, besides presenting highly bioaccessible minerals in its composition, maintaining a satisfactory antioxidant capacity.

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Cuban Red Propolis and Brazilian Green Propolis May Help Treat Laryngeal Cancer

Mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of propolis on human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells

Nat Prod Res. 2017 Aug 8:1-7

Propolis has been used as a traditional remedy for centuries because of its beneficial effects, including anticancer properties.

The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic mechanism of Cuban red propolis (CP) and Brazilian green propolis (BP) on human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cells. Cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, fluorescence staining, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the expression of pro/anti-apoptotic genes were assessed. Cell viability and cytotoxic assays suggested a dose-dependent effect of CP and BP extracts with a possible association of intracellular reactive oxygen species production and decreased ΔΨm. Both samples induced apoptosis via activation of TP53, CASP3, BAX, P21 signalling, and downregulation of BCL2 and BCL-XL. CP exerted a higher cytotoxic effect than BP extract.

Our findings suggest further investigation of the main components of each propolis sample, what may lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of laryngeal cancer.

Wednesday, August 09, 2017

Honeydew Honey an Important Natural Source of Bioaccessible Polyphenols

Effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, minerals, and antioxidant capacity of Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys

Food Res Int. 2017 Sep;99(Pt 1):670-678

Honey is a product traditionally consumed due to its possible health benefits promoted by natural antioxidants. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on these compounds in honeys.

To improve the knowledge of this subject, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of simulated digestion on the stability of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays), phenolic compounds (LC-ESI-MS/MS), and minerals (CE-DAD) in Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys. The results show that the digestive system, mainly after duodenal digestion, significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity assessed by FRAP (410.3±18.3 to 564.7±8.4μmolFe+2100g-1), DPPH (30.1±0.8 to 33.9±1.4mgAAE100g-1), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays (58.3±2.6 to 142.0±1.6mgGAE100g-1) of this honey. However, phenolic compounds and minerals showed high stability and in some cases, significantly increased after the simulated digestion, presenting a bioaccessible fraction that ranged from 78.2±6.4 to 174.38±6.82% and 94.0±4.3 to 220.5±3.4%, respectively.

Therefore, these honey constituents may be considered highly bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Additionally, the correlation between the investigated parameters suggests that other honey constituents could also possibly affect antioxidant capacity of this honey.

In conclusion, the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) honeydew honey can be highlighted as an important natural source of bioaccessible polyphenols, besides presenting highly bioaccessible minerals in its composition, maintaining a satisfactory antioxidant capacity.

Tuesday, August 08, 2017

Vietnamese Stingless Bee Propolis May Help Treat Pancreatic Cancer

Chemical Constituents of Propolis from Vietnamese Trigona minor and Their Antiausterity Activity against the PANC-1 Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line

J Nat Prod. 2017 Aug 7

The ethanol extract of propolis from the Vietnamese stingless bee Trigona minor possessed potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium, with a PC50 value of 14.0 μg/mL.

Chemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of 15 cycloartane-type triterpenoids, including five new compounds (1-5), and a lanostane-type triterpenoid. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis.

Among the isolated compounds, 23-hydroxyisomangiferolic acid B (5) and 27-hydroxyisomangiferolic acid (13) exhibited the most potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under nutrition-deprived conditions, with PC50 values of 4.3 and 3.7 μM, respectively.

Monday, August 07, 2017

Signature Compounds of Manuka Honey - Leptosperin, Lepteridine and 2-Methoxyacetophenone

New research advances Manuka honey definition

Voxy, 8/2/2017

Comvita (NZX:CVT) announced today research supporting industry and government moves to improve the existing definition for Manuka honey. The research paper has been peer reviewed and published in the Journal of Food Chemistry. The research describes how unique signature compounds can be identified and used to profile genuine Manuka honey.

Researchers examined a range of nectar and honey samples, identifying and measuring several potential honey marker compounds. The compounds were evaluated based on their uniqueness to Manuka, relative abundance, stability, and potential for adulteration. The most significant signature compounds of Manuka honey were found to be leptosperin, lepteridine and 2-methoxyacetophenone...

Sunday, August 06, 2017

Honey, Royal Jelly Component Defensin-1 Boosts Wound Healing

Bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1, promotes wound re-epithelialisation in vitro and in vivo

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 4;7(1):7340

Royal jelly (RJ) has successfully been used as a remedy in wound healing. RJ has multiple effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, in various cell types. However, no component(s) (other than antibacterial) have been identified in RJ-accelerated wound healing.

In this study, we demonstrate that keratinocytes are responsible for the elevated production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) after incubation with a water extract of RJ. Furthermore, the keratinocyte migration and wound closure rates were significantly increased in the presence of RJ extract. MMP-9 production was reduced significantly following proteinase K treatment but remained stable after heat treatment, indicating that active component(s) have a proteinous character.

To identify the component responsible for inducing MMP-9 production, RJ extract was fractionated using C18 RP-HPLC. In fractions exhibiting stimulatory activity, we immunochemically detected the bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1. Defensin-1 was cloned, and recombinant peptide was produced in a baculoviral expression system. Defensin-1 stimulated MMP-9 secretion from keratinocytes and increased keratinocyte migration and wound closure in vitro. In addition, defensin-1 promoted re-epithelisation and wound closure in uninfected excision wounds.

These data indisputably demonstrate that defensin-1, a regular but concentration variable factor found in honey and RJ, contributes to cutaneous wound closure by enhancing keratinocyte migration and MMP-9 secretion.

Saturday, August 05, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Prevent Cancer

Anti-mutagenic and synergistic cytotoxic effect of cisplatin and Honey Bee venom on 4T1 invasive mammary carcinoma cell line

Introduction: Honey Bee Venom (HBV) has various biological activities such as inhibitory effect on several types of cancer. Cisplatin is an old and potent drug to treat the most of cancer. Our aims in this study were determination of the anti-mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of HBV on mammary carcinoma.

Methods: 4T1 cell line was cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum, at 37°C in humidified CO2-incubator. The cell viabilities were examined by MTT assay. HBV was screened for its anti-mutagenic activity against sodium azide by Ames test. The results were assessed by SPSS software and one-way ANOVA considering P < 0.05 level of significant. Results: The result showed that 6 ug/ml HBV, 20 ug/ml cisplatin and 6 ug/ml HBV with 10 ug/ml cisplatin can induce an approximately 50% 4T1 cell death. 7 mg/ml HBV with the inhibition of 62.76% sodium azide showed high potential in decreasing the mutagenic agents.

Conclusions: MTT assay demonstrated that HBV and cisplatin can cause cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin is also promoted by HBV. Ames test results indicated that HBV can inhibit mutagenic agent. Anti-mutagenic activity of HBV was increased significantly in presence of S9. Our findings reveal that HBV has cancer preventing effects.

Friday, August 04, 2017

High Levels of Methylglyoxal Found in Nordic Mire and Forest Honeys

Screening bioactivity and bioactive constituents of Nordic unifloral honeys

Food Chem. 2017 Dec 15;237:214-224

The objective of this study was to screen the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of thirty nine honey samples from Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Their physicochemical properties were analysed, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay and antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed by microdilution assay.

The honey samples obtained were buckwheat, caraway, clover, dandelion, fireweed, heather, lime tree, lingonberry, rape, raspberry, sweet clover, willow, mire, honeydew and polyfloral. Eleven honey samples showed high antioxidant activity. With 15% honey dilution, three unifloral honeys had over 85% inhibition against growth of P. aeruginosa and ten honey samples against S. aureus.

The buckwheat, raspberry and honeydew honeys showed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activity. An unexpectedly high amount of methylglyoxal was found in mire and forest honeys. Some phenolic compounds are shown to be plant species-specific floral markers due to their appearance in specific unifloral honey samples.

Thursday, August 03, 2017

Royal Jelly Has Anti-Inflammatory Action

Royal Jelly Inhibits the Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Activated Macrophages

Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Volume 68, 2004 - Issue 1

In this study, we have examined the anti-inflammatory actions of royal jelly (RJ) at a cytokine level. When supernatants of RJ suspensions were added to a culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1, was efficiently inhibited in a dose-dependent manner without having cytotoxic effects on macrophages. This suggests that RJ contains factor(s) responsible for the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. We named the factor for honeybees RJ-derived anti-inflammatory factor (HBRJ-AIF), and further investigated the molecular aspects of it. Size fractionation study showed that HBRJ-AIF is composed of substances of low (<5 and="" high="" kda="">30 kDa) molecular weights, with the former being a major component. Chromatographic analysis showed that MRJP3 is one candidate for the HBRJ-AIF with high molecular weights. Thus, our results suggest that RJ has anti-inflammatory actions through inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages.

Wednesday, August 02, 2017

Honey Helps Treat Vaginitis

Comparison of vaginal ointment of honey and clotrimazole for treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis: A random clinical trial

J Mycol Med. 2017 Jul 28. pii: S1156-5233(17)30039-2


Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the most prevalent vaginitis in women, accounting for 10 million medical referrals a year. Vaginal clotrimazole is a drug of choice for VVC treatment. However, increased drug resistance to this microorganism has led to an interest in naturally derived antifungal drugs. This study was conducted to compare honey vaginal ointment and clotrimazole vaginal ointment for VVC treatment.


Eighty women diagnosed with VVC were assigned to two groups for honey ointment and clotrimazole ointment treatment using a simple randomization rule. The ointments were applied at night for seven days. The disease symptoms including inflammation, vaginal discharge, and irritation at baseline in the fourth and eighth days of treatment were examined and compared between the two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20 with the Friedman test, Chi-square test, and independent t-test. P<0 .05="" as="" considered="" p="" significance.="" the="" was="">

The two groups were similar for inflammation severity, irritation, and discharge at baseline. In both the groups, the symptoms disappeared after treatment. On the eighth day of treatment, there was a significant difference in inflammation and vaginal discharge between the two groups. Inflammation (P = 0.002) and vaginal discharge (P = 0.003) recovered better in the clotrimazole group. But there was no significant difference in irritation severity and satisfaction with treatment between the two groups. In the two groups, no side effects were reported.


Honey contributes to treating VVC. Thanks to the popular positive attitudes of honey, its availability, no need for sterility, and its cost-effectiveness, it is a choice of treatment for VVC.

Tuesday, August 01, 2017

Propolis Protects Liver From Damage

Effect of Saudi Propolis on Hepatitis Male Rats

 J Nutr Food Sci 2017, 7:4

This study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of the Saudi gum (propolis) by reduction of the toxic substances in rats that target the liver and affect its performance. The chemical components of propolis were identified.

The study included 42 Albino male rat of a healthy weight ranged from 255-287 g, and they were divided into six equal groups. The first group was fed the standard diet (negative control group), while the other 35 rats were injected with carbon tetrachloride under the skin (1.5 ml/ kg) in order to infect them with acute hepatitis.

After 24 h, the groups of infected rats were divided and the second group (positive control group) was also fed a standard meal, while the other groups infected which were the third, fourth, fifth and sixth were fed on a diet with access to a standard concentration of Saudi bee gum of 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, through the mouth for 4 consecutive weeks.

The results showed that propolis contains 41 compounds and out of these 17 compounds have been identified. Volatile oil was in proportion of 20.37%, aliphatic acids in 16.87%, and esters in 15.48% and alcohols in 13.98%. The results showed a significant improvement in the biochemical parameters in hepatitis rats which were treated with propolis. Results also showed that propolis increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of hepatitis rats treated with propolis.

The study concluded that propolis plays an effective role in protecting the liver from damage and inflammation that can be caused by the components of antioxidation and inflammation.